Print Production Terminology
Bleed - Extension (1/8") of image areas
printed beyond the trim size of a sheet or page. This allows
the image to spill off the edge of the page.
CMYK - The four colors used to create
a spectrum of shades in four-color process work. (cyan,
magenta, yellow, and black)
Comp (comprehensive) - A rapidly drawn
but high-quality sketch intended for presentation purposes.
Traditionally comps are created as quick color sketches
done in marker, often used for client presentations especially
in advertising and architecture. A comp is usually intended
to be a very close approximation to the final production
image so that it can easily be evaluated without the ambiguity
of a rough sketch.
Copy - All written material in editing
and typesetting, is referred to as "copy." In graphic design
and printing, copy can include everything to be printed:
art, photographs, and graphics, as well as type.
Cover stock - A heavy paper stock made
for the covers of books or brochures, folders, pamphlets.
Die - A device used for cutting, scoring,
stamping, embossing, and de‑embossing.
Dot gain - The amount that an ink halftone
dot expands when applied to the surface of a paper. This
is usually a factor of the type of press and the absorbency
of the paper.
Duotone - An image that uses two different
overlapping halftone screens in different spot colors to
create a toned effect.
Dummy - Drawing showing layout of type
Finish - A term referring to the appearance
of the surface of a paper.
Flexography - A method of printing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing)
most commonly used for packaging (labels, tape, bags, boxes,
banners, etc.). A flexographic print is made by creating
a positive image on a rubber plate. Then a measured amount
of ink (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ink)
is deposited upon the surface of the printing plate (or
printing cylinder) using an engraved anilox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anilox)
roll whose texture holds a specific amount of ink. The print
surface then rotates, contacting the print material, which
transfers the ink.
Forestry Stewardship Council (FSC) - The
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international organization
that brings people together to find solutions that promote
responsible stewardship of the world's forests.
Four-Color Process - Technique of printing
that uses process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black)
to simulate full-color images.
Grain - In paper, the direction in which
fibers are aligned.
Halftone - An irregular pattern of tiny
dots that can be used to print a full range of tones. Halftone
screens are used to print reproductions of photographs and
artwork that are not line art. Multiple halftones are combined
in process color to give the illusion of a full-color image.
Hard Copy - Copy on paper, as opposed
to on electronic storage.
Line art - Any artwork or type in which
there are no gray tones; all image areas are either black
or white. Shading may be accomplished by such techniques
as stippling or cross-hatching. Line art can be reproduced
without using a halftone screen.
Line screen - The frequency, or fineness
of a halftone or screen, expressed in lines per inch (lpi).
Coarse screens are used where dot gain is high, fine screens
where highest quality is required. This is usually a function
of the type of printing press and the paper specification.
Common values are 85, 100, 120, 133 and 150 lpi.
Moire - Undesirable pattern in halftones
and screen tints made with improperly aligned screens. Pronounced
Monotone - An image that uses a halftone
screen printed in a single spot color to create a toned
Offset - The method of traditional printing
where ink is applied to paper by first transferring the
ink from a printing plate to a set of rollers and then from
the rollers onto paper. This indirect or offset method is
still the most common type of printing press.
Opacity - That property of paper that
minimizes the "show-through" of printing from the opposite
side or the next sheet.
Orphan - Single line of type appearing
as first line of a column or page.
Pixel - Acronym for "Picture Element",
dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device.
PMS (Pantone Matching System) - Commonly
used initials of Pantone, Inc., trade names for ink colors
in that company's color matching system. The PMS system
is used to provide consistency in the communications of
Process color - The method of applying
color to a printed project that uses only four (4) inks
to depict all colors. The four colors are Cyan, Magenta,
Yellow and Black. This process is also known as CMYK color.
Register - Fitting of two or more printed
images, usually in different colors, in precise alignment
with each other.
Serif - Short line crossing the ends of
main strokes of characters in some type families.
Sheet Fed - The process of feeding a press
with individual sheets. This process is typically used for
Spot color - The method of applying color
to a printed project that uses specially mixed inks to depict
the color. There are hundreds of these colors and the most
common reference system for selecting them is the Pantone
Tint - Applying ink as a screen to achieve
a tone, usually specified as a percentage.
Trapping - A technique in which adjacent
colors slightly overprint each other to avoid white gaps
between the colors, should one or more of the inks print
out of register.
Trim Marks - Lines showing where to cut
edges off paper or cut paper apart after printing.
Trim size - The final size of a printed
piece. The untrimmed size may be larger due to bleed.
Turnaround Time - Amount of time needed
to complete a job.
Uncoated stock - Paper without any special
chemical finish or coating. The most common type of paper
used in printing and copying.
Web Fed - the process of feeding the material
to the press from a single master roll. The material is
then cut or re-rolled depending on its end use.
Weight - A relative measurement of the
heaviness of papers, stated in pounds (lbs). Common weights
for copying papers are 20 and 24 lb. writing; for printing
papers common weights are 60, 70 and 80 lb. text; and for
covers common weights are 65 and 80 lb. cover.
Up - Printing two or three up means printing
the identical piece twice or three times in one impression
on one sheet of paper; a cost-effective practice allowing
for maximum utilization of materials.
Varnish - Clear liquid applied like ink
to paper on press to protect and enhance underlying printing.